At the close of the thousand years, Christ again returns to the earth. He is accompanied by the host of the redeemed and attended by a retinue of angels. As He descends in terrific majesty He bids the wicked dead arise to receive their doom. They come forth, a mighty host, numberless as the sands of the sea. What a contrast to those who were raised at the first resurrection! The righteous were clothed with immortal youth and beauty. The wicked bear the traces of disease and death.
Every eye in that vast multitude is turned to behold the glory of the Son of God. With one voice the wicked hosts exclaim: "Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord!" It is not love to Jesus that inspires this utterance. The force of truth urges the words from unwilling lips. As the wicked went into their graves, so they come forth with the same enmity to Christ and the same spirit of rebellion. They are to have no new probation in which to remedy the defects of their past lives. Nothing would be gained by this. A lifetime of transgression has not softened their hearts. A second probation, were it given them, would be occupied as was the first in evading the requirements of God and exciting rebellion against Him.
Christ descends upon the Mount of Olives, whence, after His resurrection, He ascended, and where angels repeated the promise of His return. Says the prophet: "The Lord my God
shall come, and all the saints with Thee." "And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem on the east, and the Mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof, . . . and there shall be a very great valley." "And the Lord shall be king over all the earth: in that day shall there be one Lord, and His name one." Zechariah 14:5, 4, 9. As the New Jerusalem, in its dazzling splendor, comes down out of heaven, it rests upon the place purified and made ready to receive it, and Christ, with His people and the angels, enters the Holy City.
Now Satan prepares for a last mighty struggle for the supremacy. While deprived of his power and cut off from his work of deception, the prince of evil was miserable and dejected; but as the wicked dead are raised and he sees the vast multitudes upon his side, his hopes revive, and he determines not to yield the great controversy. He will marshal all the armies of the lost under his banner and through them endeavor to execute his plans. The wicked are Satan's captives. In rejecting Christ they have accepted the rule of the rebel leader. They are ready to receive his suggestions and to do his bidding. Yet, true to his early cunning, he does not acknowledge himself to be Satan. He claims to be the prince who is the rightful owner of the world and whose inheritance has been unlawfully wrested from him. He represents himself to his deluded subjects as a redeemer, assuring them that his power has brought them forth from their graves and that he is about to rescue them from the most cruel tyranny. The presence of Christ having been removed, Satan works wonders to support his claims. He makes the weak strong and inspires all with his own spirit and energy. He proposes to lead them against the camp of the saints and to take possession of the City of God. With fiendish exultation he points to the unnumbered millions who have been raised from the dead and declares that as their leader he is well able to overthrow the city and regain his throne and his kingdom.
In that vast throng are multitudes of the long-lived race that existed before the Flood; men of lofty stature and giant intellect, who, yielding to the control of fallen angels, devoted all their skill and knowledge to the exaltation of themselves; men whose wonderful works of art led the world to idolize their genius, but whose cruelty and evil inventions, defiling the earth and defacing the image of God, caused Him to blot them from the face of His creation. There are kings and generals who conquered nations, valiant men who never lost a battle, proud, ambitious warriors whose approach made kingdoms tremble. In death these experienced no change. As they come up from the grave, they resume the current of their thoughts just where it ceased. They are actuated by the same desire to conquer that ruled them when they fell.
Satan consults with his angels, and then with these kings and conquerors and mighty men. They look upon the strength and numbers on their side, and declare that the army within the city is small in comparison with theirs, and that it can be overcome. They lay their plans to take possession of the riches and glory of the New Jerusalem. All immediately begin to prepare for battle. Skillful artisans construct implements of war. Military leaders, famed for their success, marshal the throngs of warlike men into companies and divisions.
At last the order to advance is given, and the countless host moves on--an army such as was never summoned by earthly conquerors, such as the combined forces of all ages since war began on earth could never equal. Satan, the mightiest of warriors, leads the van, and his angels unite their forces for this final struggle. Kings and warriors are in his train, and the multitudes follow in vast companies, each under its appointed leader. With military precision the serried ranks advance over the earth's broken and uneven surface to the City of God. By command of Jesus, the gates of the New Jerusalem are closed, and the armies of Satan surround the city and make ready for the onset.
Now Christ again appears to the view of His enemies. Far above the city, upon a foundation of burnished gold, is a throne, high and lifted up. Upon this throne sits the Son of God, and around Him are the subjects of His kingdom. The power and majesty of Christ no language can describe, no pen portray. The glory of the Eternal Father is enshrouding His Son. The brightness of His presence fills the City of God, and flows out beyond the gates, flooding the whole earth with its radiance.
Nearest the throne are those who were once zealous in the cause of Satan, but who, plucked as brands from the burning, have followed their Saviour with deep, intense devotion. Next are those who perfected Christian characters in the midst of falsehood and infidelity, those who honored the law of God when the Christian world declared it void, and the millions, of all ages, who were martyred for their faith. And beyond is the "great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, . . . before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands." Revelation 7:9. Their warfare is ended, their victory won. They have run the race and reached the prize. The palm branch in their hands is a symbol of their triumph, the white robe an emblem of the spotless righteousness of Christ which now is theirs.
The redeemed raise a song of praise that echoes and re-echoes through the vaults of heaven: "Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb." Verse 10. And angel and seraph unite their voices in adoration. As the redeemed have beheld the power and malignity of Satan, they have seen, as never before, that no power but that of Christ could have made them conquerors. In all that shining throng there are none to ascribe salvation to themselves, as if they had prevailed by their own power and goodness. Nothing is said of what they have done or suffered; but the burden of every song, the keynote of every anthem, is: Salvation to our God and unto the Lamb.
In the presence of the assembled inhabitants of earth and heaven the final coronation of the Son of God takes place. And now, invested with supreme majesty and power, the King of kings pronounces sentence upon the rebels against His government and executes justice upon those who have transgressed His law and oppressed His people. Says the prophet of God: "I saw a great white throne, and Him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works." Revelation 20:11, 12.
As soon as the books of record are opened, and the eye of Jesus looks upon the wicked, they are conscious of every sin which they have ever committed. They see just where their feet diverged from the path of purity and holiness, just how far pride and rebellion have carried them in the violation of the law of God. The seductive temptations which they encouraged by indulgence in sin, the blessings perverted, the messengers of God despised, the warnings rejected, the waves of mercy beaten back by the stubborn, unrepentant heart--all appear as if written in letters of fire.
Above the throne is revealed the cross; and like a panoramic view appear the scenes of Adam's temptation and fall, and the successive steps in the great plan of redemption. The Saviour's lowly birth; His early life of simplicity and obedience; His baptism in Jordan; the fast and temptation in the wilderness; His public ministry, unfolding to men heaven's most precious blessings; the days crowded with deeds of love and mercy, the nights of prayer and watching in the solitude of the mountains; the plottings of envy, hate, and malice which repaid His benefits; the awful, mysterious agony in Gethsemane beneath the crushing weight of the sins of the whole world; His betrayal into the hands of the murderous
mob; the fearful events of that night of horror--the unresisting prisoner, forsaken by His best-loved disciples, rudely hurried through the streets of Jerusalem; the Son of God exultingly displayed before Annas, arraigned in the high priest's palace, in the judgment hall of Pilate, before the cowardly and cruel Herod, mocked, insulted, tortured, and condemned to die--all are vividly portrayed.
And now before the swaying multitude are revealed the final scenes--the patient Sufferer treading the path to Calvary; the Prince of heaven hanging upon the cross; the haughty priests and the jeering rabble deriding His expiring agony; the supernatural darkness; the heaving earth, the rent rocks, the open graves, marking the moment when the world's Redeemer yielded up His life.
The awful spectacle appears just as it was. Satan, his angels, and his subjects have no power to turn from the picture of their own work. Each actor recalls the part which he performed. Herod, who slew the innocent children of Bethlehem that he might destroy the King of Israel; the base Herodias, upon whose guilty soul rests the blood of John the Baptist; the weak, timeserving Pilate; the mocking soldiers; the priests and rulers and the maddened throng who cried, "His blood be on us, and on our children!"--all behold the enormity of their guilt. They vainly seek to hide from the divine majesty of His countenance, outshining the glory of the sun, while the redeemed cast their crowns at the Saviour's feet, exclaiming: "He died for me!"
Amid the ransomed throng are the apostles of Christ, the heroic Paul, the ardent Peter, the loved and loving John, and their truehearted brethren, and with them the vast host of martyrs; while outside the walls, with every vile and abominable thing, are those by whom they were persecuted, imprisoned, and slain. There is Nero, that monster of cruelty and vice, beholding the joy and exaltation of those whom he once tortured, and in whose extremest anguish he found satanic delight. His mother is there to witness the result of
her own work; to see how the evil stamp of character transmitted to her son, the passions encouraged and developed by her influence and example, have borne fruit in crimes that caused the world to shudder.
There are papist priests and prelates, who claimed to be Christ's ambassadors, yet employed the rack, the dungeon, and the stake to control the consciences of His people. There are the proud pontiffs who exalted themselves above God and presumed to change the law of the Most High. Those pretended fathers of the church have an account to render to God from which they would fain be excused. Too late they are made to see that the Omniscient One is jealous of His law and that He will in no wise clear the guilty. They learn now that Christ identifies His interest with that of His suffering people; and they feel the force of His own words: "Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me." Matthew 25:40.
The whole wicked world stand arraigned at the bar of God on the charge of high treason against the government of heaven. They have none to plead their cause; they are without excuse; and the sentence of eternal death is pronounced against them.
It is now evident to all that the wages of sin is not noble independence and eternal life, but slavery, ruin, and death. The wicked see what they have forfeited by their life of rebellion. The far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory was despised when offered them; but how desirable it now appears. "All this," cries the lost soul, "I might have had; but I chose to put these things far from me. Oh, strange infatuation! I have exchanged peace, happiness, and honor for wretchedness, infamy, and despair." All see that their exclusion from heaven is just. By their lives they have declared: "We will not have this Man [Jesus] to reign over us."
As if entranced, the wicked have looked upon the coronation of the Son of God. They see in His hands the tables of the divine law, the statutes which they have despised and
transgressed. They witness the outburst of wonder, rapture, and adoration from the saved; and as the wave of melody sweeps over the multitudes without the city, all with one voice exclaim, "Great and marvelous are Thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints" (Revelation 15:3); and, falling prostrate, they worship the Prince of life.
Satan seems paralyzed as he beholds the glory and majesty of Christ. He who was once a covering cherub remembers whence he has fallen. A shining seraph, "son of the morning;" how changed, how degraded! From the council where once he was honored, he is forever excluded. He sees another now standing near to the Father, veiling His glory. He has seen the crown placed upon the head of Christ by an angel of lofty stature and majestic presence, and he knows that the exalted position of this angel might have been his.
Memory recalls the home of his innocence and purity, the peace and content that were his until he indulged in murmuring against God, and envy of Christ. His accusations, his rebellion, his deceptions to gain the sympathy and support of the angels, his stubborn persistence in making no effort for self-recovery when God would have granted him forgiveness --all come vividly before him. He reviews his work among men and its results--the enmity of man toward his fellow man, the terrible destruction of life, the rise and fall of kingdoms, the overturning of thrones, the long succession of tumults, conflicts, and revolutions. He recalls his constant efforts to oppose the work of Christ and to sink man lower and lower. He sees that his hellish plots have been powerless to destroy those who have put their trust in Jesus. As Satan looks upon his kingdom, the fruit of his toil, he sees only failure and ruin. He has led the multitudes to believe that the City of God would be an easy prey; but he knows that this is false. Again and again, in the progress of the great controversy, he has been defeated and compelled to yield. He knows too well the power and majesty of the Eternal.
The aim of the great rebel has ever been to justify himself and to prove the divine government responsible for the rebellion. To this end he has bent all the power of his giant intellect. He has worked deliberately and systematically, and with marvelous success, leading vast multitudes to accept his version of the great controversy which has been so long in progress. For thousands of years this chief of conspiracy has palmed off falsehood for truth. But the time has now come when the rebellion is to be finally defeated and the history and character of Satan disclosed. In his last great effort to dethrone Christ, destroy His people, and take possession of the City of God, the archdeceiver has been fully unmasked. Those who have united with him see the total failure of his cause. Christ's followers and the loyal angels behold the full extent of his machinations against the government of God. He is the object of universal abhorrence.
Satan sees that his voluntary rebellion has unfitted him for heaven. He has trained his powers to war against God; the purity, peace, and harmony of heaven would be to him supreme torture. His accusations against the mercy and justice of God are now silenced. The reproach which he has endeavored to cast upon Jehovah rests wholly upon himself. And now Satan bows down and confesses the justice of his sentence.
"Who shall not fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy: for all nations shall come and worship before Thee; for Thy judgments are made manifest." Verse 4. Every question of truth and error in the long-standing controversy has now been made plain. The results of rebellion, the fruits of setting aside the divine statutes, have been laid open to the view of all created intelligences. The working out of Satan's rule in contrast with the government of God has been presented to the whole universe. Satan's own works have condemned him. God's wisdom, His justice, and His goodness stand fully vindicated. It is seen that all His dealings in the great controversy have been conducted
with respect to the eternal good of His people and the good of all the worlds that He has created. "All Thy works shall praise Thee, O Lord; and Thy saints shall bless Thee." Psalm 145:10. The history of sin will stand to all eternity as a witness that with the existence of God's law is bound up the happiness of all the beings He has created. With all the facts of the great controversy in view, the whole universe, both loyal and rebellious, with one accord declare: "Just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints."
Before the universe has been clearly presented the great sacrifice made by the Father and the Son in man's behalf. The hour has come when Christ occupies His rightful position and is glorified above principalities and powers and every name that is named. It was for the joy that was set before Him--that He might bring many sons unto glory--that He endured the cross and despised the shame. And inconceivably great as was the sorrow and the shame, yet greater is the joy and the glory. He looks upon the redeemed, renewed in His own image, every heart bearing the perfect impress of the divine, every face reflecting the likeness of their King. He beholds in them the result of the travail of His soul, and He is satisfied. Then, in a voice that reaches the assembled multitudes of the righteous and the wicked, He declares: "Behold the purchase of My blood! For these I suffered, for these I died, that they might dwell in My presence throughout eternal ages." And the song of praise ascends from the white-robed ones about the throne: "Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honor, and glory, and blessing." Revelation 5:12.
Notwithstanding that Satan has been constrained to acknowledge God's justice and to bow to the supremacy of Christ, his character remains unchanged. The spirit of rebellion, like a mighty torrent, again bursts forth. Filled with frenzy, he determines not to yield the great controversy. The time has come for a last desperate struggle against the King
of heaven. He rushes into the midst of his subjects and endeavors to inspire them with his own fury and arouse them to instant battle. But of all the countless millions whom he has allured into rebellion, there are none now to acknowledge his supremacy. His power is at an end. The wicked are filled with the same hatred of God that inspires Satan; but they see that their case is hopeless, that they cannot prevail against Jehovah. Their rage is kindled against Satan and those who have been his agents in deception, and with the fury of demons they turn upon them.
Saith the Lord: "Because thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God; behold, therefore I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations: and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy brightness. They shall bring thee down to the pit." "I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. . . . I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee. . . . I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee. . . . Thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more." Ezekiel 28:6-8, 16-19.
"Every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire." "The indignation of the Lord is upon all nations, and His fury upon all their armies: He hath utterly destroyed them, He hath delivered them to the slaughter." "Upon the wicked He shall rain quick burning coals, fire and brimstone and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup." Isaiah 9:5; 34:2; Psalm 11:6, margin. Fire comes down from God out of heaven. The earth is broken up. The weapons concealed in its depths are drawn forth. Devouring flames burst from every yawning chasm. The very rocks are on fire. The day has come that shall burn as an oven. The elements melt with fervent heat, the earth also, and the works that are therein are burned up. Malachi 4:1; 2 Peter 3:10. The earth's surface seems one molten mass--a vast, seething
lake of fire. It is the time of the judgment and perdition of ungodly men--"the day of the Lord's vengeance, and the year of recompenses for the controversy of Zion." Isaiah 34:8.
The wicked receive their recompense in the earth. Proverbs 11:31. They "shall be stubble: and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts." Malachi 4:1. Some are destroyed as in a moment, while others suffer many days. All are punished "according to their deeds." The sins of the righteous having been transferred to Satan, he is made to suffer not only for his own rebellion, but for all the sins which he has caused God's people to commit. His punishment is to be far greater than that of those whom he has deceived. After all have perished who fell by his deceptions, he is still to live and suffer on. In the cleansing flames the wicked are at last destroyed, root and branch--Satan the root, his followers the branches. The full penalty of the law has been visited; the demands of justice have been met; and heaven and earth, beholding, declare the righteousness of Jehovah.
Satan's work of ruin is forever ended. For six thousand years he has wrought his will, filling the earth with woe and causing grief throughout the universe. The whole creation has groaned and travailed together in pain. Now God's creatures are forever delivered from his presence and temptations. "The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet: they [the righteous] break forth into singing." Isaiah 14:7. And a shout of praise and triumph ascends from the whole loyal universe. "The voice of a great multitude," "as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings," is heard, saying: "Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth." Revelation 19:6.
While the earth was wrapped in the fire of destruction, the righteous abode safely in the Holy City. Upon those that had part in the first resurrection, the second death has no power. While God is to the wicked a consuming fire, He is to His people both a sun and a shield. Revelation 20:6; Psalm 84:11.
"I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away." Revelation 21:1. The fire that consumes the wicked purifies the earth. Every trace of the curse is swept away. No eternally burning hell will keep before the ransomed the fearful consequences of sin.
One reminder alone remains: Our Redeemer will ever bear the marks of His crucifixion. Upon His wounded head, upon His side, His hands and feet, are the only traces of the cruel work that sin has wrought. Says the prophet, beholding Christ in His glory: "He had bright beams coming out of His side: and there was the hiding of His power." Habakkuk 3:4, margin. That pierced side whence flowed the crimson stream that reconciled man to God--there is the Saviour's glory, there "the hiding of His power." "Mighty to save," through the sacrifice of redemption, He was therefore strong to execute justice upon them that despised God's mercy. And the tokens of His humiliation are His highest honor; through the eternal ages the wounds of Calvary will show forth His praise and declare His power.
"O Tower of the flock, the stronghold of the daughter of Zion, unto Thee shall it come, even the first dominion." Micah 4:8. The time has come to which holy men have looked with longing since the flaming sword barred the first pair from Eden, the time for "the redemption of the purchased possession." Ephesians 1:14. The earth originally given to man as his kingdom, betrayed by him into the hands of Satan, and so long held by the mighty foe, has been brought back by the great plan of redemption. All that was lost by sin has been restored. "Thus saith the Lord . . . that formed the earth and made it; He hath established it, He created it not in vain, He formed it to be inhabited." Isaiah 45:18. God's original purpose in the creation of the earth is fulfilled as it is made the eternal abode of the redeemed. "The righteous shall inherit the land, and dwell therein forever." Psalm 37:29.
A fear of making the future inheritance seem too material
has led many to spiritualize away the very truths which lead us to look upon it as our home. Christ assured His disciples that He went to prepare mansions for them in the Father's house. Those who accept the teachings of God's word will not be wholly ignorant concerning the heavenly abode. And yet, "eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him." 1 Corinthians 2:9. Human language is inadequate to describe the reward of the righteous. It will be known only to those who behold it. No finite mind can comprehend the glory of the Paradise of God.
In the Bible the inheritance of the saved is called "a country." Hebrews 11:14-16. There the heavenly Shepherd leads His flock to fountains of living waters. The tree of life yields its fruit every month, and the leaves of the tree are for the service of the nations. There are ever-flowing streams, clear as crystal, and beside them waving trees cast their shadows upon the paths prepared for the ransomed of the Lord. There the wide-spreading plains swell into hills of beauty, and the mountains of God rear their lofty summits. On those peaceful plains, beside those living streams, God's people, so long pilgrims and wanderers, shall find a home.
"My people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, and in sure dwellings, and in quiet resting places." "Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting nor destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise." "They shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them. They shall not build, and another inhabit; they shall not plant, and another eat: . . . Mine elect shall long enjoy the work of their hands." Isaiah 32:18; 60:18; 65:21, 22.
There, "the wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose." "Instead of the thorn shall come up the fir tree, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle tree." "The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall
lie down with the kid; . . . and a little child shall lead them." "They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain," saith the Lord. Isaiah 35:1; 55:13; 11:6, 9.
Pain cannot exist in the atmosphere of heaven. There will be no more tears, no funeral trains, no badges of mourning. "There shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying: . . . for the former things are passed away." "The inhabitant shall not say, I am sick: the people that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity." Revelation 21:4; Isaiah 33:24.
There is the New Jerusalem, the metropolis of the glorified new earth, "a crown of glory in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God." "Her light was like unto a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal." "The nations of them which are saved shall walk in the light of it: and the kings of the earth do bring their glory and honor into it." Saith the Lord: "I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in My people." "The tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people, and God Himself shall be with them, and be their God." Isaiah 62:3; Revelation 21:11, 24; Isaiah 65:19; Revelation 21:3.
In the City of God "there shall be no night." None will need or desire repose. There will be no weariness in doing the will of God and offering praise to His name. We shall ever feel the freshness of the morning and shall ever be far from its close. "And they need no candle, neither light of the sun; for the Lord God giveth them light." Revelation 22:5. The light of the sun will be superseded by a radiance which is not painfully dazzling, yet which immeasurably surpasses the brightness of our noontide. The glory of God and the Lamb floods the Holy City with unfading light. The redeemed walk in the sunless glory of perpetual day.
"I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it." Revelation 21:22. The people of God are privileged to hold open communion with the Father and the Son. "Now we see through a glass, darkly."
1 Corinthians 13:12. We behold the image of God reflected, as in a mirror, in the works of nature and in His dealings with men; but then we shall see Him face to face, without a dimming veil between. We shall stand in His presence and behold the glory of His countenance.
There the redeemed shall know, even as also they are known. The loves and sympathies which God Himself has planted in the soul shall there find truest and sweetest exercise. The pure communion with holy beings, the harmonious social life with the blessed angels and with the faithful ones of all ages who have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb, the sacred ties that bind together "the whole family in heaven and earth" (Ephesians 3:15)--these help to constitute the happiness of the redeemed.
There, immortal minds will contemplate with never-failing delight the wonders of creative power, the mysteries of redeeming love. There will be no cruel, deceiving foe to tempt to forgetfulness of God. Every faculty will be developed, every capacity increased. The acquirement of knowledge will not weary the mind or exhaust the energies. There the grandest enterprises may be carried forward, the loftiest aspirations reached, the highest ambitions realized; and still there will arise new heights to surmount, new wonders to admire, new truths to comprehend, fresh objects to call forth the powers of mind and soul and body.
All the treasures of the universe will be open to the study of God's redeemed. Unfettered by mortality, they wing their tireless flight to worlds afar--worlds that thrilled with sorrow at the spectacle of human woe and rang with songs of gladness at the tidings of a ransomed soul. With unutterable delight the children of earth enter into the joy and the wisdom of unfallen beings. They share the treasures of knowledge and understanding gained through ages upon ages in contemplation of God's handiwork. With undimmed vision they gaze upon the glory of creation--suns and stars and systems, all in their appointed order circling the throne
of Deity. Upon all things, from the least to the greatest, the Creator's name is written, and in all are the riches of His power displayed.
And the years of eternity, as they roll, will bring richer and still more glorious revelations of God and of Christ. As knowledge is progressive, so will love, reverence, and happiness increase. The more men learn of God, the greater will be their admiration of His character. As Jesus opens before them the riches of redemption and the amazing achievements in the great controversy with Satan, the hearts of the ransomed thrill with more fervent devotion, and with more rapturous joy they sweep the harps of gold; and ten thousand times ten thousand and thousands of thousands of voices unite to swell the mighty chorus of praise.
"And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honor, and glory, and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever." Revelation 5:13.
The great controversy is ended. Sin and sinners are no more. The entire universe is clean. One pulse of harmony and gladness beats through the vast creation. From Him who created all, flow life and light and gladness, throughout the realms of illimitable space. From the minutest atom to the greatest world, all things, animate and inanimate, in their unshadowed beauty and perfect joy, declare that God is love.
REVISIONS ADOPTED BY THE E. G. WHITE TRUSTEES NOVEMBER 19, 1956,
AND DECEMBER 6, 1979
PAGE 50. TITLES.--IN A PASSAGE WHICH IS INCLUDED IN THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CANON LAW, OR CORPUS JURIS CANONICI, POPE INNOCENT III DECLARES THAT THE ROMAN PONTIFF IS "THE VICEGERENT UPON EARTH, NOT OF A MERE MAN, BUT OF VERY GOD;" AND IN A GLOSS ON THE PASSAGE IT IS EXPLAINED THAT THIS IS BECAUSE HE IS THE VICEGERENT OF CHRIST, WHO IS "VERY GOD AND VERY MAN." SEE DECRETALES DOMINI GREGORII PAPAE IX (DECRETALS OF THE LORD POPE GREGORY IX), LIBER 1, DE TRANSLATIONE EPISCOPORUM, (ON THE TRANSFERENCE OF BISHOPS), TITLE 7, CH. 3; CORPUS JURIS CANONICI (2D LEIPZIG ED., 1881), COL. 99; (PARIS, 1612), TOM. 2, DECRETALES, COL. 205. THE DOCUMENTS WHICH FORMED THE DECRETALS WERE GATHERED BY GRATIAN, WHO WAS TEACHING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BOLOGNA ABOUT THE YEAR 1140. HIS WORK WAS ADDED TO AND RE-EDITED BY POPE GREGORY IX IN AN EDITION ISSUED IN 1234. OTHER DOCUMENTS APPEARED IN SUCCEEDING YEARS FROM TIME TO TIME INCLUDING THE EXTRAVAGANTES, ADDED TOWARD THE CLOSE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY, ALL OF THESE, WITH GRATIAN'S DECRETUM, WERE PUBLISHED AS THE CORPUS JURIS CANONICI IN 1582. POPE PIUS X AUTHORIZED THE CODIFICATION IN CANON LAW IN 1904, AND THE RESULTING CODE BECAME EFFECTIVE IN 1918.
FOR THE TITLE "LORD GOD THE POPE" SEE A GLOSS ON THE EXTRAVAGANTES OF POPE JOHN XXII, TITLE 14, CH. 4, DECLARAMUS. IN AN ANTWERP EDITION OF THE EXTRAVAGANTES, DATED 1584, THE WORDS "DOMINUM DEUM NOSTRUM PAPAM" ("OUR LORD GOD THE POPE") OCCUR IN COLUMN 153. IN A PARIS EDITION, DATED 1612, THEY OCCUR IN COLUMN 140. IN SEVERAL EDITIONS PUBLISHED SINCE 1612 THE WORD "DEUM" ("GOD") HAS BEEN OMITTED.
PAGE 50. INFALLIBILITY.--ON THE DOCTRINE OF INFALLIBILITY AS SET FORTH AT THE VATICAN COUNCIL OF 1870-71, SEE PHILIP SCHAFF, THE CREEDS OF CHRISTENDOM, VOL. 2, DOGMATIC DECREES OF THE VATICAN COUNCIL, PP. 234-271, WHERE BOTH THE LATIN AND THE ENGLISH TEXTS ARE GIVEN. FOR DISCUSSION SEE, FOR THE ROMAN CATHOLIC VIEW, THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. 7, ART. "INFALLIBILITY," BY PATRICK J. TONER, P. 790 FF.; JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS, THE FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (BALTIMORE: JOHN MURPHY COMPANY, 110TH ED., 1917), CHS. 7, 11. FOR ROMAN CATHOLIC OPPOSITION TO THE DOCTRINE OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY, SEE JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLINGER (PSEUDONYM "JANUS") THE POPE AND THE COUNCIL (NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1869); AND W.J. SPARROW SIMPSON, ROMAN CATHOLIC OPPOSITION TO PAPAL INFALLIBILITY (LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, 1909). FOR THE NON-ROMAN VIEW, SEE GEORGE SALMON, INFALLIBILITY OF THE CHURCH (LONDON: JOHN MURRAY, REV. ED., 1914).
PAGE 52. IMAGE WORSHIP.--"THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES . . . WAS ONE OF THOSE CORRUPTIONS OF CHRISTIANITY WHICH CREPT INTO THE CHURCH STEALTHILY AND ALMOST WITHOUT NOTICE OR OBSERVATION. THIS CORRUPTION DID NOT, LIKE OTHER HERESIES, DEVELOP ITSELF AT ONCE, FOR IN THAT CASE IT WOULD HAVE MET WITH DECIDED CENSURE AND REBUKE: BUT, MAKING ITS COMMENCEMENT UNDER A FAIR DISGUISE, SO GRADUALLY WAS ONE PRACTICE AFTER ANOTHER INTRODUCED IN CONNECTION WITH IT, THAT THE CHURCH HAD BECOME DEEPLY STEEPED IN PRACTICAL IDOLATRY, NOT ONLY WITHOUT ANY EFFICIENT OPPOSITION, BUT ALMOST WITHOUT ANY DECIDED REMONSTRANCE; AND WHEN AT LENGTH AN ENDEAVOR WAS MADE TO ROOT IT OUT, THE EVIL WAS FOUND TOO DEEPLY FIXED TO ADMIT OF REMOVAL. . . . IT MUST BE TRACED TO THE IDOLATROUS TENDENCY OF THE HUMAN HEART, AND ITS PROPENSITY TO SERVE THE CREATURE MORE THAN THE CREATOR. . . .
"IMAGES AND PICTURES WERE FIRST INTRODUCED INTO CHURCHES, NOT TO BE WORSHIPED, BUT EITHER IN THE PLACE OF BOOKS TO GIVE INSTRUCTION TO THOSE WHO COULD NOT READ, OR TO EXCITE DEVOTION IN THE MINDS OF OTHERS. HOW FAR THEY EVER ANSWERED SUCH A PURPOSE IS DOUBTFUL; BUT, EVEN GRANTING THAT THIS WAS THE CASE FOR A TIME, IT SOON CEASED TO BE SO, AND IT WAS FOUND THAT PICTURES AND IMAGES BROUGHT INTO CHURCHES DARKENED RATHER THAN ENLIGHTENED THE MINDS OF THE IGNORANT--DEGRADED RATHER THAN EXALTED THE DEVOTION OF THE WORSHIPER. SO THAT, HOWEVER THEY MIGHT HAVE BEEN INTENDED TO DIRECT MEN'S MINDS TO GOD, THEY ENDED IN TURNING THEM FROM HIM TO THE WORSHIP OF CREATED THINGS."--J. MENDHAM, THE SEVENTH GENERAL COUNCIL, THE SECOND OF NICAEA, INTRODUCTION, PAGES III-VI.
FOR A RECORD OF THE PROCEEDINGS AND DECISIONS OF THE SECOND COUNCIL OF NICAEA, A.D. 787, CALLED TO ESTABLISH THE WORSHIP OF IMAGES, SEE BARONIUS, ECCLESIASTICAL ANNALS, VOL. 9, PP. 391-407 (ANTWERP, 1612); J. MENDHAM, THE SEVENTH GENERAL COUNCIL, THE SECOND OF NICAEA; ED. STILLINGFLEET, DEFENSE OF THE DISCOURSE CONCERNING THE IDOLATRY PRACTICED IN THE CHURCH OF ROME (LONDON, 1686); A SELECT LIBRARY OF NICENE AND POST-NICENE FATHERS, 2D SERIES, VOL. 14, PP. 521-587 (NEW YORK, 1900); CHARLES J. HEFELE, A HISTORY OF THE COUNCILS OF THE CHURCH, FROM THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS, B. 18, CH. 1, SECS. 332, 333; CH. 2, SECS. 345-352 (T. AND T. CLARK ED., 1896), VOL. 5, PP. 260-304, 342-372.
PAGE 53. THE SUNDAY LAW OF CONSTANTINE.--THE LAW ISSUED BY THE EMPEROR CONSTANTINE ON THE SEVENTH OF MARCH, A.D. 321, REGARDING A DAY OF REST FROM LABOR, READS THUS:
"ALL JUDGES AND CITY PEOPLE AND THE CRAFTSMEN SHALL REST UPON THE VENERABLE DAY OF THE SUN. COUNTRY PEOPLE, HOWEVER, MAY FREELY ATTEND TO THE CULTIVATION OF THE FIELDS, BECAUSE IT FREQUENTLY HAPPENS THAT NO OTHER DAYS ARE BETTER ADAPTED FOR PLANTING THE GRAIN IN THE FURROWS OR THE VINES IN TRENCHES. SO THAT THE ADVANTAGE GIVEN BY HEAVENLY PROVIDENCE MAY NOT FOR THE OCCASION OF A SHORT TIME PERISH."--JOSEPH CULLEN AYER, A SOURCE BOOK FOR ANCIENT CHURCH HISTORY (NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1913), DIV. 2, PER. 1, CH. 1, SEC. 59, G, PP. 284, 285.
THE LATIN ORIGINAL IS IN THE CODEX JUSTINIANI (CODEX OF JUSTINIAN), LIB. 3,
TITLE 12, LEX. 3. THE LAW IS GIVEN IN LATIN AND IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION IN PHILIP SCHAFF'S HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, VOL. 3, 3D PERIOD, CH. 7, SEC. 75, P. 380, FOOTNOTE 1; AND IN JAMES A. HESSEY'S BAMPTON LECTURES, SUNDAY, LECTURE 3, PAR. 1, 3D ED., MURRAY'S PRINTING OF 1866, P. 58. SEE DISCUSSION IN SCHAFF, AS ABOVE REFERRED TO; IN ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, A MANUAL OF CHURCH HISTORY (PHILADELPHIA: THE AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY, PRINTING OF 1933), REV. ED., VOL. 1, PP. 305-307; AND IN LEROY E. FROOM, THE PROPHETIC FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (WASHINGTON, D.C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1950), VOL. 1, PP 376-381.
PAGE 54. PROPHETIC DATES.--AN IMPORTANT PRINCIPLE IN PROPHETIC INTERPRETATION IN CONNECTION WITH TIME PROPHECIES IS THE YEAR-DAY PRINCIPLE, UNDER WHICH A DAY OF PROPHETIC TIME IS COUNTED AS A CALENDAR YEAR OF HISTORIC TIME. BEFORE THE ISRAELITES ENTERED THE LAND OF CANAAN THEY SENT TWELVE SPIES AHEAD TO INVESTIGATE. THE SPIES WERE GONE FORTY DAYS, AND UPON THEIR RETURN THE HEBREWS, FRIGHTENED AT THEIR REPORT, REFUSED TO GO UP AND OCCUPY THE PROMISED LAND. THE RESULT WAS A SENTENCE THE LORD PASSED UPON THEM: "AFTER THE NUMBER OF THE DAYS IN WHICH YE SEARCHED THE LAND, EVEN FORTY DAYS, EACH DAY FOR A YEAR, SHALL YE BEAR YOUR INIQUITIES, EVEN FORTY YEARS." NUMBERS 14:34. A SIMILAR METHOD OF COMPUTING FUTURE TIME IS INDICATED THROUGH THE PROPHET EZEKIEL. FORTY YEARS OF PUNISHMENT FOR INIQUITIES AWAITED THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH. THE LORD SAID THROUGH THE PROPHET: "LIE AGAIN ON THY RIGHT SIDE, AND THOU SHALT BEAR THE INIQUITY OF THE HOUSE OF JUDAH FORTY DAYS: I HAVE APPOINTED THEE EACH DAY FOR A YEAR." EZEKIEL 4:6. THIS YEAR-DAY PRINCIPLE HAS AN IMPORTANT APPLICATION IN INTERPRETING THE TIME OF THE PROPHECY OF THE "TWO THOUSAND AND THREE HUNDRED EVENINGS AND MORNINGS" (DANIEL 8:14, R.V.) AND THE 1260-DAY PERIOD, VARIOUSLY INDICATED AS "A TIME AND TIMES AND THE DIVIDING OF TIME" (DANIEL 7:25), THE "FORTY AND TWO MONTHS" (REVELATION 11:2; 13:5), AND THE "THOUSAND TWO HUNDRED AND THREESCORE DAYS" (REVELATION 11:3; 12:6).
PAGE 56. FORGED WRITINGS.--AMONG THE DOCUMENTS THAT AT THE PRESENT TIME ARE GENERALLY ADMITTED TO BE FORGERIES, THE DONATION OF CONSTANTINE AND THE PSEUDO-ISIDORIAN DECRETALS ARE OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE. "THE 'DONATION OF CONSTANTINE' IS THE NAME TRADITIONALLY APPLIED, SINCE THE LATER MIDDLE AGES, TO A DOCUMENT PURPORTING TO HAVE BEEN ADDRESSED BY CONSTANTINE THE GREAT TO POPE SYLVESTER I, WHICH IS FOUND FIRST IN A PARISIAN MANUSCRIPT (CODEX LAT. 2777) OF PROBABLY THE BEGINNING OF THE NINTH CENTURY. SINCE THE ELEVENTH CENTURY IT HAS BEEN USED AS A POWERFUL ARGUMENT IN FAVOR OF THE PAPAL CLAIMS, AND CONSEQUENTLY SINCE THE TWELFTH IT HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF A VIGOROUS CONTROVERSY. AT THE SAME TIME, BY RENDERING IT POSSIBLE TO REGARD THE PAPACY AS A MIDDLE TERM BETWEEN THE ORIGINAL AND THE MEDIEVAL ROMAN EMPIRE, AND THUS TO FORM A THEORETICAL BASIS OF CONTINUITY FOR THE RECEPTION OF THE ROMAN LAW IN THE MIDDLE AGES, IT HAS HAD NO SMALL INFLUENCE UPON SECULAR HISTORY."--THE NEW
SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE, VOL. 3, ART. "DONATION OF CONSTANTINE," PP. 484, 485.
THE HISTORICAL THEORY DEVELOPED IN THE "DONATION" IS FULLY DISCUSSED IN HENRY E. CARDINAL MANNING'S THE TEMPORAL POWER OF THE VICAR OF JESUS CHRIST, LONDON, 1862. THE ARGUMENTS OF THE "DONATION" WERE OF A SCHOLASTIC TYPE, AND THE POSSIBILITY OF A FORGERY WAS NOT MENTIONED UNTIL THE RISE OF HISTORICAL CRITICISM IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. NICHOLAS OF CUSA WAS AMONG THE FIRST TO CONCLUDE THAT CONSTANTINE NEVER MADE ANY SUCH DONATION. LORENZA VALLA IN ITALY GAVE A BRILLIANT DEMONSTRATION OF ITS SPURIOUSNESS IN 1450. SEE CHRISTOPHER B. COLEMAN'S TREATISE OF LORENZO VALLA ON THE DONATION OF CONSTANTINE (NEW YORK, 1927). FOR A CENTURY LONGER, HOWEVER, THE BELIEF IN THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE "DONATION" AND OF THE FALSE DECRETALS WAS KEPT ALIVE. FOR EXAMPLE, MARTIN LUTHER AT FIRST ACCEPTED THE DECRETALS, BUT HE SOON SAID TO ECK: "I IMPUGN THESE DECRETALS;" AND TO SPALATIN: "HE [THE POPE] DOES IN HIS DECRETALS CORRUPT AND CRUCIFY CHRIST, THAT IS, THE TRUTH."
IT IS DEEMED ESTABLISHED THAT (1) THE "DONATION" IS A FORGERY, (2) IT IS THE WORK OF ONE MAN OR PERIOD, (3) THE FORGER HAS MADE USE OF OLDER DOCUMENTS, (4) THE FORGERY ORIGINATED AROUND 752 AND 778. AS FOR THE CATHOLICS, THEY ABANDONED THE DEFENSE OF THE AUTHENTICITY OF THE DOCUMENT WITH BARONIUS, ECCLESIASTICAL ANNALS, IN 1592. CONSULT FOR THE BEST TEXT, K. ZEUMER, IN THE FESTGABE FUR RUDOLF VON GNEIST (BERLIN, 1888). TRANSLATED IN COLEMAN'S TREATISE, REFERRED TO ABOVE, AND IN ERNEST F. HENDERSON, SELECT HISTORICAL DOCUMENTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES (NEW YORK, 1892), P. 319; BRIEFWECHSEL (WEIMAR ED.), PP. 141, 161. SEE ALSO THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE (1950), VOL. 3, P. 484; F. GREGOROVIUS, ROME IN THE MIDDLE AGES, VOL. 2, P. 329; AND JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLINGER, FABLES RESPECTING THE POPES OF THE MIDDLE AGES (LONDON, 1871).
THE "FALSE WRITINGS" REFERRED TO IN THE TEXT INCLUDE ALSO THE PSEUDO-ISIDORIAN DECRETALS, TOGETHER WITH OTHER FORGERIES. THE PSEUDO-ISIDORIAN DECRETALS ARE CERTAIN FICTITIOUS LETTERS ASCRIBED TO EARLY POPES FROM CLEMENT (A.D. 100) TO GREGORY THE GREAT (A.D. 600), INCORPORATED IN A NINTH CENTURY COLLECTION PURPORTING TO HAVE BEEN MADE BY "ISIDORE MERCATOR." THE NAME "PSEUDO-ISIDORIAN DECRETALS" HAS BEEN IN USE SINCE THE ADVENT OF CRITICISM IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
PSEUDO-ISIDORE TOOK AS THE BASIS OF HIS FORGERIES A COLLECTION OF VALID CANONS CALLED THE HISPANA GALLICA AUGUSTODUNENSIS, THUS LESSENING THE DANGER OF DETECTION, SINCE COLLECTIONS OF CANONS WERE COMMONLY MADE BY ADDING NEW MATTER TO OLD. THUS HIS FORGERIES WERE LESS APPARENT WHEN INCORPORATED WITH GENUINE MATERIAL. THE FALSITY OF THE PSEUDO-ISIDORIAN FABRICATIONS IS NOW INCONTESTABLY ADMITTED, BEING PROVED BY INTERNAL EVIDENCE, INVESTIGATION OF THE SOURCES, THE METHODS USED, AND THE FACT THAT THIS MATERIAL WAS UNKNOWN BEFORE 852. HISTORIANS AGREE THAT 850 OR 851 IS THE MOST PROBABLE DATE FOR THE COMPLETION OF THE COLLECTION, SINCE THE DOCUMENT IS FIRST CITED IN THE ADMONITIO OF THE CAPITULARY OF QUIERCY, IN 857.
THE AUTHOR OF THESE FORGERIES IS NOT KNOWN. IT IS PROBABLE THAT THEY
EMANATED FROM THE AGGRESSIVE NEW CHURCH PARTY WHICH FORMED IN THE NINTH CENTURY AT RHEIMS, FRANCE. IT IS AGREED THAT BISHOP HINCMAR OF RHEIMS USED THESE DECRETALS IN HIS DEPOSITION OF ROTHAD OF SOISSONS, WHO BROUGHT THE DECRETALS TO ROME IN 864 AND LAID THEM BEFORE POPE NICHOLAS I.
AMONG THOSE WHO CHALLENGED THEIR AUTHENTICITY WERE NICHOLAS OF CUSA (1401-1464), CHARLES DUMOULIN (1500-1566), AND GEORGE CASSENDER (1513- 1564). THE IRREFUTABLE PROOF OF THEIR FALSITY WAS CONVEYED BY DAVID BLONDEL, 1628.
AN EARLY EDITION IS GIVEN IN MIGNE PATROLGIA LATINA, CXXX. FOR THE OLDEST AND BEST MANUSCRIPT, SEE P. HINSCHIUS, DECRETALES PSEUDO-ISIDORIANIAE AT CAPITULA ANGILRAMNI (LEIPZIG, 1863). CONSULT THE NEW SCHAFF-HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE (1950), VOL. 9, PP. 343-345. SEE ALSO H. H. MILMAN, LATIN CHRISTIANITY (VOLS.), VOL. 3; JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLINGER, THE POPE AND THE COUNCIL (1869); AND KENNETH SCOTT LATOURETTE, A HISTORY OF THE EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY (1939), VOL. 3; THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. 5, ART. "FALSE DECRETALS," AND FOURNIER, "ETUDES SURE LES FAUSSES DECRETALS," IN REVUE D'HISTORIQUE ECCLESIASTIQUE (LOUVAIN) VOL. 7 (1906), AND VOL. 8 (1907).
PAGE 57. THE DICTATE OF HILDEBRAND (GREGORY VII).--FOR THE ORIGINAL LATIN VERSION SEE BARONIUS, ANNALES ECCLESIASTICI, ANN. 1076, VOL. 17, PP. 405, 406 OF THE PARIS PRINTING OF 1869; AND THE MONUMENTA GERMANIAE HISTORICA SELECTA, VOL. 3, P. 17. FOR AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION SEE FREDERIC A. OGG, SOURCE BOOK OF MEDIEVAL HISTORY (NEW YORK: AMERICAN BOOK CO., 1907), CH. 6, SEC. 45, PP. 262-264; AND OLIVER J. THATCHER AND EDGAR H. MCNEAL, SOURCE BOOK FOR MEDIEVAL HISTORY (NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1905), SEC. 3, ITEM 65, PP. 136-139.
FOR A DISCUSSION OF THE BACKGROUND OF THE DICTATE, SEE JAMES BRYCE, THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE, REV. ED., CH. 10; AND JAMES W. THOMPSON AND EDGAR N. JOHNSON, AN INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL EUROPE, 300-1500, PAGES 377-380.
PAGE 59. PURGATORY.--DR. JOSEPH FAA DI BRUNO THUS DEFINES PURGATORY: "PURGATORY IS A STATE OF SUFFERING AFTER THIS LIFE, IN WHICH THOSE SOULS ARE FOR A TIME DETAINED, WHO DEPART THIS LIFE AFTER THEIR DEADLY SINS HAVE BEEN REMITTED AS TO THE STAIN AND GUILT, AND AS TO THE EVERLASTING PAIN THAT WAS DUE TO THEM; BUT WHO HAVE ON ACCOUNT OF THOSE SINS STILL SOME DEBT OF TEMPORAL PUNISHMENT TO PAY; AS ALSO THOSE SOULS WHICH LEAVE THIS WORLD GUILTY ONLY OF VENIAL SINS."--CATHOLIC BELIEF (1884 ED.; IMPRIMATUR ARCHBISHOP OF NEW YORK), PAGE 196.
SEE ALSO K. R. HAGENBACH, COMPENDIUM OF THE HISTORY OF DOCTRINES (T. AND T. CLARK ED.) VOL. 1, PP. 234-237, 405, 408; VOL. 2, PP. 135-150, 308, 309; CHARLES ELLIOTT, DELINEATION OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM, B. 2, CH. 12; THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. 12, ART. "PURGATORY."
PAGE 59. INDULGENCES.--FOR A DETAILED HISTORY OF THE DOCTRINE OF INDULGENCES SEE MANDELL CREIGHTON, A HISTORY OF THE PAPACY FROM THE GREAT
SCHISM TO THE SACK OF ROME (LONDON: LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO., 1911), VOL. 5, PP. 56-64, 71; W.H. KENT, "INDULGENCES," THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. 7, PP. 783-789; H. C. LEA, A HISTORY OF AURICULAR CONFESSION AND INDULGENCES IN THE LATIN CHURCH (PHILADELPHIA: LEA BROTHERS AND CO., 1896); THOMAS M. LINDSAY, A HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION (NEW YORK; CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1917), VOL. 1, PP. 216-227; ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, A MANUAL OF CHURCH HISTORY (PHILADELPHIA: THE AMERICAN BAPTIST PUBLICATION SOCIETY, 1953), VOL. 2, PP. 53, 54, 62; LEOPOLD RANKE, HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY (2D LONDON ED., 1845), TRANSLATED BY SARAH AUSTIN, VOL. 1, PP. 331, 335-337, 343-346; PRESERVED SMITH, THE AGE OF THE REFORMATION (NEW YORK: HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY, 1920), PP. 23-25, 66.
ON THE PRACTICAL OUTWORKINGS OF THE DOCTRINE OF INDULGENCES DURING THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION SEE A PAPER BY DR. H. C. LEA, ENTITLED, "INDULGENCES IN SPAIN," PUBLISHED IN PAPERS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CHURCH HISTORY, VOL. 1, PP. 129-171. OF THE VALUE OF THIS HISTORICAL SIDELIGHT DR. LEA SAYS IN HIS OPENING PARAGRAPH: "UNVEXED BY THE CONTROVERSY WHICH RAGED BETWEEN LUTHER AND DR. ECK AND SILVESTER PRIERIAS, SPAIN CONTINUED TRANQUILLY TO FOLLOW IN THE OLD AND BEATEN PATH, AND FURNISHES US WITH THE INCONTESTABLE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS WHICH ENABLE US TO EXAMINE THE MATTER IN THE PURE LIGHT OF HISTORY."
PAGE 59. THE MASS.--FOR THE DOCTRINE OF THE MASS AS SET FORTH AT THE COUNCIL OF TRENT SEE THE CANONS AND DECREES OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT IN PHILIP SCHAFF, CREEDS OF CHRISTENDOM, VOL. 2, PP. 126-139, WHERE BOTH LATIN AND ENGLISH TEXTS ARE GIVEN. SEE ALSO H. G. SCHROEDER, CANONS AND DECREES OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT (ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI: B. HERDER, 1941).
FOR A DISCUSSION OF THE MASS SEE THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL 5, ART. "EUCHARIST," BY JOSEPH POHLE, PAGE 572 FF.; NIKOLAUS GIHR, HOLY SACRIFICE OF THE MASS, DOGMATICALLY, LITURGICALLY, ASCETICALLY EXPLAINED, 12TH ED. (ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI: B. HERDER, 1937); JOSEF ANDREAS JUNGMANN, THE MASS OF THE ROMAN RITE, ITS ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT, TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN BY FRANCIS A. BRUNNER (NEW YORK: BENZIGER BROS., 1951). FOR THE NON-CATHOLIC VIEW, SEE JOHN CALVIN, INSTITUTES OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION, B. 4, CHS. 17, 18; AND EDWARD BOUVERIE PUSEY, THE DOCTRINE OF THE REAL PRESENCE (OXFORD, ENGLAND: JOHN H. PARKER, 1855).
PAGE 65. THE SABBATH AMONG THE WALDENSES.--THERE ARE WRITERS WHO HAVE MAINTAINED THAT THE WALDENSES MADE A GENERAL PRACTICE OF OBSERVING THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH. THIS CONCEPT AROSE FROM SOURCES WHICH IN THE ORIGINAL LATIN DESCRIBE THE WALDENSES AS KEEPING THE DIES DOMINICALIS, OR LORD'S DAY (SUNDAY), BUT IN WHICH THROUGH A PRACTICE WHICH DATES FROM THE REFORMATION, THE WORD FOR "SUNDAY" HAS BEEN TRANSLATED "SABBATH."
BUT THERE IS HISTORICAL EVIDENCE OF SOME OBSERVANCE OF THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH AMONG THE WALDENSES. A REPORT OF AN INQUISITION BEFORE WHOM WERE BROUGHT SOME WALDENSES OF MORAVIA IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY DECLARES THAT AMONG THE WALDENSES "NOT A FEW INDEED CELEBRATE THE
SABBATH WITH THE JEWS."--JOHANN JOSEPH IGNAZ VON DOLLINGER, BEITRAGE ZUR SEKTENGESCHICHTE DES MITTELALTERS (REPORTS ON THE HISTORY OF THE SECTS OF THE MIDDLE AGES), MUNICH, 1890, 2D PT., P. 661. THERE CAN BE NO QUESTION THAT THIS SOURCE INDICATES THE OBSERVANCE OF THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH.
PAGE 65. WALDENSIAN VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE.--ON RECENT DISCOVERIES OF WALDENSIAN MANUSCRIPTS SEE M. ESPOSITO, "SUR QUELQUES MANUSCRITS DE L'ANCIENNE LITTERATURE DES VAUDOIS DU PIEMONT," IN REVUE D' HISTORIQUE ECCLESIASTIQUE (LOUVAIN, 1951), P. 130 FF.; F. JOSTES, "DIE WALDENSERBIBELN," IN HISTORISCHES JAHRBUCH, 1894; D. LORTSCH, HISTOIRE DE LA BIBLE EN FRANCE (PARIS, 1910), CH. 10.
A CLASSIC WRITTEN BY ONE OF THE WALDENSIAN "BARBS" IS JEAN LEGER, HISTOIRE GENERALE DES EGLISES EVANGELIQUES DES VALLEES DE PIEMONT (LEYDEN, 1669), WHICH WAS WRITTEN AT THE TIME OF THE GREAT PERSECUTIONS AND CONTAINS FIRSTHAND INFORMATION WITH DRAWINGS.
FOR THE LITERATURE OF WALDENSIAN TEXTS SEE A. DESTEFANO, CIVILTA MEDIOEVALE (1944); AND RIFORMATORI ED ERETICI NEL MEDIOEVE (PALERMO, 1938); J. D. BOUNOUS, THE WALDENSIAN PATOIS OF PRAMOL (NASHVILLE, 1936); AND A. DONDAINE, ARCHIVUM FRATRUM PRAEDICATORUM (1946).
FOR THE HISTORY OF THE WALDENSES SOME OF THE MORE RECENT, RELIABLE WORKS ARE: E. COMBA, HISTORY OF THE WALDENSES IN ITALY (SEE LATER ITALIAN EDITION PUBLISHED IN TORRE PELLICE, 1934); E. GEBHART, MYSTICS AND HERETICS (BOSTON, 1927); G. GONNET, IL VALDISMO MEDIOEVALE, PROLEGOMENI (TORRE PELLICE, 1935); AND JALLA, HISTOIRE DES VAUDOIS ET LEURS COLONIES (TORRE PELLICE, 1935).
PAGE 77. EDICT AGAINST THE WALDENSES.--A CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF THE TEXT OF THE PAPAL BULL ISSUED BY INNOCENT VIII IN 1487 AGAINST THE WALDENSES (THE ORIGINAL OF WHICH IS IN THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE) IS GIVEN, IN AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION, IN JOHN DOWLING'S HISTORY OF ROMANISM (1871 ED.), B. 6, CH. 5, SEC. 62.
PAGE 85. WYCLIFFE.--THE HISTORIAN DISCOVERS THAT THE NAME OF WYCLIFFE, HAS MANY DIFFERENT FORMS OF SPELLING. FOR A FULL DISCUSSION OF THESE SEE J. DAHMUS, THE PROSECUTION OF JOHN WYCLYF (NEW HAVEN: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1952), P. 7.
PAGE 86. INFALLIBILITY.
FOR THE ORIGINAL TEXT OF THE PAPAL BULLS ISSUED AGAINST WYCLIFFE WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION SEE J. DAHMUS, THE PROSECUTION OF JOHN WYCLYF (NEW HAVEN: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1952), PP. 35-49; ALSO JOHN FOXE, ACTS AND MONUMENTS OF THE CHURCH (LONDON: PRATT TOWNSEND, 1870), VOL. 3, PP. 4-13.
FOR A SUMMARY OF THESE BULLS SENT TO THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, TO KING EDWARD, AND TO THE CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, SEE MERLE D'AUBIGNE, THE HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY (LONDON: BLACKIE AND SON, 1885), VOL. 4, DIV. 7, P. 93; AUGUST NEANDER,
HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH (BOSTON: CROCKER AND BRESTER, 1862), VOL. 5, PP. 146, 147; GEORGE SARGEANT, HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH (DALLAS: FREDERICK PUBLISHING HOUSE, 1948), P. 323; GOTTHARD V. LECHLER, JOHN WYCLIFFE AND HIS ENGLISH PRECURSORS (LONDON: THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY, 1878), PP. 162-164; PHILIP SCHAFF, HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH (NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1915), VOL. 5, PT. 2, P. 317.
PAGE 104. COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE.--A PRIMARY SOURCE ON THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE IS RICHENDAL ULRICH, DAS CONCILIUM SO ZU CONSTANZ GEHALTEN IST WORDEN (AUGSBURG, 1483, INCUN.). AN INTERESTING, RECENT STUDY OF THIS TEXT, BASED ON THE "AULENDORF CODEX," IS IN THE SPENCER COLLECTION OF THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, PUBLISHED BY KARL KUP, ULRICH VON RICHENTAL'S CHRONICLE OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE (NEW YORK, 1936). SEE ALSO H. FINKE (ED.), ACTA CONCILII CONSTANCIENSIS (1896), VOL. 1; HEFELE, CONCILIENGESCHICHTE (9 VOLS.), VOLS. 6, 7; L. MIRBT, QUELLEN ZUR GESCHICHTE DES PAPSTTUMS (1934); MILMAN, LATIN CHRISTIANITY, VOL. 7, PP. 426-524; PASTOR, THE HISTORY OF THE POPES (34 VOLS.), VOL. 1, P. 197 FF.
MORE RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON THE COUNCIL ARE K. ZAHRINGER, DAS KARDINAL KOLLEGIUM AUF DEM KONSTANZER KONZIL (MUNSTER, 1935); TH. F. GROGAU, THE CONCILIAR THEORY AS IT MANIFESTED ITSELF AT THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE (WASHINGTON, 1949); FRED A. KREMPLE, CULTURAL ASPECTS OF THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE AND BASEL (ANN ARBOR, 1955); JOHN PATRICK MCGOWAN, D'AILLY AND THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE (WASHINGTON: CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY, 1936).
FOR JOHN HUSS SEE JOHN HUS, LETTERS, 1904; E. J. KITTS, POPE JOHN XXIII AND MASTER JOHN HUS (LONDON, 1910); D. S. SCHAFF, JOHN HUS (1915); SCHWARZE, JOHN HUS (1915); AND MATTHEW SPINKA, JOHN HUS AND THE CZECH REFORM (1941).
PAGE 234. JESUITISM.--FOR A STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ORIGIN, THE PRINCIPLES, AND THE PURPOSES OF THE "SOCIETY OF JESUS," AS OUTLINED BY MEMBERS OF THIS ORDER, SEE A WORK ENTITLED CONCERNING JESUITS, EDITED BY THE REV. JOHN GERARD, S.J., AND PUBLISHED IN LONDON, 1902, BY THE CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY. IN THIS WORK IT IS SAID, "THE MAINSPRING OF THE WHOLE ORGANIZATION OF THE SOCIETY IS A SPIRIT OF ENTIRE OBEDIENCE: 'LET EACH ONE,' WRITES ST. IGNATIUS, 'PERSUADE HIMSELF THAT THOSE WHO LIVE UNDER OBEDIENCE OUGHT TO ALLOW THEMSELVES TO BE MOVED AND DIRECTED BY DIVINE PROVIDENCE THROUGH THEIR SUPERIORS, JUST AS THOUGH THEY WERE A DEAD BODY, WHICH ALLOWS ITSELF TO BE CARRIED ANYWHERE AND TO BE TREATED IN ANY MANNER WHATEVER, OR AS AN OLD MAN'S STAFF, WHICH SERVES HIM WHO HOLDS IT IN HIS HAND IN WHATSOEVER WAY HE WILL.'
"THIS ABSOLUTE SUBMISSION IS ENNOBLED BY ITS MOTIVE, AND SHOULD BE, CONTINUES THE . . . FOUNDER, 'PROMPT, JOYOUS AND PERSEVERING; . . . THE OBEDIENT RELIGIOUS ACCOMPLISHES JOYFULLY THAT WHICH HIS SUPERIORS HAVE CONFIDED TO HIM FOR THE GENERAL GOOD, ASSURED THAT THEREBY HE CORRESPONDS TRULY WITH THE DIVINE WILL.'"--THE COMTESSE R. DE COURSON, IN CONCERNING JESUITS, PAGE 6.
SEE ALSO L. E. DUPIN, A COMPENDIOUS HISTORY OF THE CHURCH, CENT. 16, CH. 33 (LONDON, 1713, VOL. 4, PP. 132-135); MOSHEIM, ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, CENT. 16, SEC. 3, PT. 1, CH. 1, PAR. 10 (INCLUDING NOTES); THE ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA (9TH ED.), ART. "JESUITS;" C. PAROISSEN, THE PRINCIPLES OF THE JESUITS, DEVELOPED IN A COLLECTION OF EXTRACTS FROM THEIR OWN AUTHORS (LONDON, 1860--AN EARLIER EDITION APPEARED IN 1839); W. C. CARTWRIGHT, THE JESUITS, THEIR CONSTITUTION AND TEACHING (LONDON, 1876); E. L. TAUNTON, THE HISTORY OF THE JESUITS IN ENGLAND, 1580-1773 (LONDON, 1901).
SEE ALSO H. BOEHMER, THE JESUITS (TRANSLATION FROM THE GERMAN, PHILADELPHIA, CASTLE PRESS 1928 ); E. GOETHEIN, IGNATIUS LOYOLA AND THE GEGEN-REFORMATION (HALLE, 1895); T. CAMPBELL, THE JESUITS, 1534 1921 (NEW YORK, 1922); E. L. TAUNTON, THE HISTORY OF THE JESUITS IN ENGLAND, 1580-1773 (LONDON, 1901).
PAGE 235. THE INQUISITION.--FOR THE ROMAN CATHOLIC VIEW SEE THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA, VOL. 8, ART. "INQUISITION" BY JOSEPH BLOTZER, P. 26 FF.: AND E. VACANDARD, THE INQUISITION: A CRITICAL AND HISTORICAL STUDY OF THE COERCIVE POWER OF THE CHURCH (NEW YORK: LONGMANS, GREEN AND COMPANY, 1908).
FOR AN ANGLO-CATHOLIC VIEW SEE HOFFMAN NICKERSON, THE INQUISITION: A POLITICAL AND MILITARY STUDY OF ITS ESTABLISHMENT. FOR THE NON-CATHOLIC VIEW SEE PHILIP VAN LIMBORCH, HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION; HENRY CHARLES LEA, A HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION OF THE MIDDLE AGES, 3 VOLS.; A HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION OF SPAIN, 4 VOLS., AND THE INQUISITION IN THE SPANISH DEPENDENCIES; AND H. S. TURBERVILLE, MEDIEVAL HERESY AND THE INQUISITION (LONDON: C. LOCKWOOD AND SON, 1920--A MEDIATING VIEW).
PAGE 265. CAUSES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.--ON THE FAR-REACHING CONSEQUENCES OF THE REJECTION OF THE BIBLE AND OF BIBLE RELIGION, BY THE PEOPLE OF FRANCE, SEE H. VON SYBEL, HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, B. 5, CH. 1, PARS. 3-7; HENRY THOMAS BUCKLE, HISTORY OF CIVILIZATION IN ENGLAND, CHS. 8 , 12, 14 (NEW YORK, 1895, VOL. 1, PP. 364-366, 369-371, 437, 540, 541, 550); BLACKWOOD'S MAGAZINE, VOL. 34, NO. 215 (NOVEMBER, 1833), P. 739; J. G. LORIMER, AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE PROTESTANT CHURCH IN FRANCE, CH. 8, PARS. 6, 7.
PAGE 267. EFFORTS TO SUPPRESS AND DESTROY THE BIBLE.--THE COUNCIL OF TOULOUSE, WHICH MET ABOUT THE TIME OF THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES, RULED: "WE PROHIBIT LAYMEN POSSESSING COPIES OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT. . . . WE FORBID THEM MOST SEVERELY TO HAVE THE ABOVE BOOKS IN THE POPULAR VERNACULAR." "THE LORDS OF THE DISTRICTS SHALL CAREFULLY SEEK OUT THE HERETICS IN DWELLINGS, HOVELS, AND FORESTS, AND EVEN THEIR UNDERGROUND RETREATS SHALL BE ENTIRELY WIPED OUT."--COUNCIL. TOLOSANUM, POPE GREGORY IX, ANNO. CHR. 1229. CANONS 14 AND 2. THIS COUNCIL SAT AT THE TIME OF THE CRUSADE AGAINST THE ALBIGENSES.
"THIS PEST [THE BIBLE] HAD TAKEN SUCH AN EXTENSION THAT SOME PEOPLE HAD
APPOINTED PRIESTS OF THEIR OWN, AND EVEN SOME EVANGELISTS WHO DISTORTED AND DESTROYED THE TRUTH OF THE GOSPEL AND MADE NEW GOSPELS FOR THEIR OWN PURPOSE . . . (THEY KNOW THAT) THE PREACHING AND EXPLANATION OF THE BIBLE IS ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN TO THE LAY MEMBERS."--ACTS OF INQUISITION, PHILIP VAN LIMBORCH, HISTORY OF THE INQUISITION, CHAPTER 8.
THE COUNCIL OF TARRAGONA, 1234, RULED THAT: "NO ONE MAY POSSESS THE BOOKS OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS IN THE ROMANCE LANGUAGE, AND IF ANYONE POSSESSES THEM HE MUST TURN THEM OVER TO THE LOCAL BISHOP WITHIN EIGHT DAYS AFTER PROMULGATION OF THIS DECREE, SO THAT THEY MAY BE BURNED LEST, BE HE A CLERIC OR A LAYMAN, HE BE SUSPECTED UNTIL HE IS CLEARED OF ALL SUSPICION."--D. LORTSCH, HISTOIRE DE LA BIBLE EN FRANCE, 1910, P. 14.
AT THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE, IN 1415, WYCLIFFE WAS POSTHUMOUSLY CONDEMNED BY ARUNDEL, THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, AS "THAT PESTILENT WRETCH OF DAMNABLE HERESY WHO INVENTED A NEW TRANSLATION OF THE SCRIPTURES IN HIS MOTHER TONGUE."
THE OPPOSITION TO THE BIBLE BY THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH HAS CONTINUED THROUGH THE CENTURIES AND WAS INCREASED PARTICULARLY AT THE TIME OF THE FOUNDING OF BIBLE SOCIETIES. ON DECEMBER 8, 1866, POPE PIUS IX, IN HIS ENCYCLICAL QUANTA CURA, ISSUED A SYLLABUS OF EIGHTY ERRORS UNDER TEN DIFFERENT HEADINGS. UNDER HEADING IV WE FIND LISTED: "SOCIALISM, COMMUNISM, CLANDESTINE SOCIETIES, BIBLE SOCIETIES. . . . PESTS OF THIS SORT MUST BE DESTROYED BY ALL POSSIBLE MEANS."
PAGE 276. THE REIGN OF TERROR.--FOR A RELIABLE, BRIEF INTRODUCTION INTO THE HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION SEE L. GERSHOY, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1932); G. LEFEBVRE, THE COMING OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (PRINCETON, 1947); AND H. VON SYBEL, HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (1869), 4 VOLS.
THE MONITEUR OFFICIEL WAS THE GOVERNMENT PAPER AT THE TIME OF THE REVOLUTION AND IS A PRIMARY SOURCE, CONTAINING A FACTUAL ACCOUNT OF ACTIONS TAKEN BY THE ASSEMBLIES, FULL TEXTS OF THE DOCUMENTS, ETC. IT HAS BEEN REPRINTED. SEE ALSO A. AULARD, CHRISTIANITY AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION (LONDON, 1927), IN WHICH THE ACCOUNT IS CARRIED THROUGH 1802--AN EXCELLENT STUDY; W. H. JERVIS, THE GALLICAN CHURCH AND THE REVOLUTION (LONDON, 1882), A CAREFUL WORK BY AN ANGLICAN, BUT SHOWS PREFERENCE FOR CATHOLICISM.
ON THE RELATION OF CHURCH AND STATE IN FRANCE DURING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION SEE HENRY H. WALSH, THE CONCORDATE OF 1801: A STUDY OF NATIONALISM IN RELATION TO CHURCH AND STATE (NEW YORK, 1933); CHARLES LEDRE, L'EGLISE DE FRANCE SOUS LA REVOLUTION (PARIS, 1949).
SOME CONTEMPORARY STUDIES ON THE RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE OF THE REVOLUTION ARE G. CHAIS DE SOURCESOL, LE LIVRE DES MANIFESTES (AVIGNON, 1800), IN WHICH THE AUTHOR ENDEAVORED TO ASCERTAIN THE CAUSES OF THE UPHEAVAL, AND ITS RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE, ETC.; JAMES BICHENO, THE SIGNS OF THE TIMES (LONDON, 1794); JAMES WINTHROP, A SYSTEMATIC ARRANGEMENT OF SEVERAL SCRIPTURE PROPHECIES RELATING TO ANTICHRIST; WITH THEIR APPLICATION TO THE COURSE OF HISTORY
(BOSTON, 1795); AND LATHROP, THE PROPHECY OF DANIEL RELATING TO THE TIME OF THE END (SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS, 1811).
FOR THE CHURCH DURING THE REVOLUTION SEE W. M. SLOAN, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND RELIGIOUS REFORM (1901); P. F. LA GORCE, HISTOIRE RELIGIEUSE DE LA REVOLUTION (PARIS, 1909).
ON RELATIONS WITH THE PAPACY SEE G. BOURGIN, LA FRANCE ET ROME DE 1788-1797 (PARIS, 1808), BASED ON SECRET FILES IN THE VATICAN; A. LATREILLE, L' EGLISE CATHOLIQUE ET LA REVOLUTION (PARIS, 1950), ESPECIALLY INTERESTING ON PIUS VI AND THE RELIGIOUS CRISIS, 1775-1799.
FOR PROTESTANTS DURING THE REVOLUTION, SEE PRESSENSE (ED.), THE REIGN OF TERROR (CINCINNATI, 1869).
PAGE 280. THE MASSES AND THE PRIVILEGED CLASSES.--ON SOCIAL CONDITIONS PREVAILING IN FRANCE PRIOR TO THE PERIOD OF THE REVOLUTION, SEE H. VON HOLST, LOWELL LECTURES ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, LECTURE 1; ALSO TAINE, ANCIEN REGIME, AND A. YOUNG, TRAVELS IN FRANCE.
PAGE 283. RETRIBUTION.--FOR FURTHER DETAILS CONCERNING THE RETRIBUTIVE CHARACTER OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION SEE THOS. H. GILL, THE PAPAL DRAMA, B. 10; EDMOND DE PRESSENSE, THE CHURCH AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, B. 3, CH. 1.
PAGE 284. THE ATROCITIES OF THE REIGN OF TERROR.--SEE M. A. THIERS, HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, VOL. 3, PP. 42-44, 62-74, 106 (NEW YORK, 1890, TRANSLATED BY F. SHOBERL); F. A. MIGNET, HISTORY OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, CH. 9, PAR. 1 (BOHN, 1894); A. ALISON, HISTORY OF EUROPE, 1789-1815, VOL. 1, CH. 14 (NEW YORK, 1872, VOL. 1, PP. 293-312).
PAGE 287. THE CIRCULATION OF THE SCRIPTURES.--IN 1804, ACCORDING TO MR. WILLIAM CANTON OF THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY, "ALL THE BIBLES EXTANT IN THE WORLD, IN MANUSCRIPT OR IN PRINT, COUNTING EVERY VERSION IN EVERY LAND, WERE COMPUTED AT NOT MANY MORE THAN FOUR MILLIONS. . . . THE VARIOUS LANGUAGES IN WHICH THOSE FOUR MILLIONS WERE WRITTEN, INCLUDING SUCH BYGONE SPEECH AS THE MOESO-GOTHIC OF ULFILAS AND THE ANGLO-SAXON OF BEDE, ARE SET DOWN AS NUMBERING ABOUT FIFTY."--WHAT IS THE BIBLE SOCIETY? REV. ED., 1904, P. 23.
THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY REPORTED A DISTRIBUTION FROM 1816 THROUGH 1955 OF 481,149,365 BIBLES, TESTAMENTS, AND PORTIONS OF TESTAMENTS. TO THIS MAY BE ADDED OVER 600,000,000 BIBLES OR SCRIPTURE PORTIONS DISTRIBUTED BY THE BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY. DURING THE YEAR 1955 ALONE THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY DISTRIBUTED A GRAND TOTAL OF 23,819,733 BIBLES, TESTAMENTS, AND PORTIONS OF TESTAMENTS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.
THE SCRIPTURES, IN WHOLE OR IN PART, HAVE BEEN PRINTED, AS OF DECEMBER, 1955, IN 1,092 LANGUAGES; AND NEW LANGUAGES ARE CONSTANTLY BEING ADDED.
PAGE 288. FOREIGN MISSIONS.--THE MISSIONARY ACTIVITY OF THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH HAS NOT BEEN DUPLICATED UNTIL MODERN TIMES. IT HAD VIRTUALLY DIED OUT BY THE YEAR 1000, AND WAS SUCCEEDED BY THE MILITARY CAMPAIGNS OF THE CRUSADES. THE REFORMATION ERA SAW LITTLE FOREIGN MISSION WORK, EXCEPT ON THE PART OF THE EARLY JESUITS. THE PIETISTIC REVIVAL PRODUCED SOME MISSIONARIES. THE WORK OF THE MORAVIAN CHURCH IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY WAS REMARKABLE, AND THERE WERE SOME MISSIONARY SOCIETIES FORMED BY THE BRITISH FOR WORK IN COLONIZED NORTH AMERICA. BUT THE GREAT RESURGENCE OF FOREIGN MISSIONARY ACTIVITY BEGINS AROUND THE YEAR 1800, AT "THE TIME OF THE END." DANIEL 12:4. IN 1792 WAS FORMED THE BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY, WHICH SENT CAREY TO INDIA. IN 1795 THE LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY WAS ORGANIZED, AND ANOTHER SOCIETY IN 1799 WHICH IN 1812 BECAME THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. SHORTLY AFTERWARD THE WESLEYAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY WAS FOUNDED. IN THE UNITED STATES THE AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS FOR FOREIGN MISSIONS WAS FORMED IN 1812, AND ADONIRAM JUDSON WAS SENT OUT THAT YEAR TO CALCUTTA. HE ESTABLISHED HIMSELF IN BURMA THE NEXT YEAR. IN 1814 THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION WAS FORMED. THE PRESBYTERIAN BOARD OF FOREIGN MISSIONS WAS FORMED IN 1837.
"IN A.D. 1800, . . . THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF CHRISTIANS WERE THE DESCENDANTS OF THOSE WHO HAD BEEN WON BEFORE A.D. 1500. . . . NOW, IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, CAME A FURTHER EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY. NOT SO MANY CONTINENTS OR MAJOR COUNTRIES WERE ENTERED FOR THE FIRST TIME AS IN THE PRECEDING THREE CENTURIES. THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN IMPOSSIBLE, FOR ON ALL THE LARGER LAND MASSES OF THE EARTH EXCEPT AUSTRALIA AND AMONG ALL THE MORE NUMEROUS PEOPLES AND IN ALL THE AREAS OF HIGH CIVILIZATION CHRISTIANITY HAD BEEN INTRODUCED BEFORE A.D. 1800. WHAT NOW OCCURRED WAS THE ACQUISITION OF FRESH FOOTHOLDS IN REGIONS AND AMONG PEOPLES ALREADY TOUCHED, AN EXPANSION OF UNPRECEDENTED EXTENT FROM BOTH THE NEWER BASES AND THE OLDER ONES, AND THE ENTRANCE OF CHRISTIANITY INTO THE LARGE MAJORITY OF SUCH COUNTRIES, ISLANDS, PEOPLES, AND TRIBES AS HAD PREVIOUSLY NOT BEEN TOUCHED. . . .
"THE NINETEENTH CENTURY SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY WAS DUE PRIMARILY TO A NEW BURST OF RELIGIOUS LIFE EMANATING FROM THE CHRISTIAN IMPULSE. . . . NEVER IN ANY CORRESPONDING LENGTH OF TIME HAD THE CHRISTIAN IMPULSE GIVEN RISE TO SO MANY NEW MOVEMENTS. NEVER HAD IT HAD QUITE SO GREAT AN EFFECT UPON WESTERN EUROPEAN PEOPLES. IT WAS FROM THIS ABOUNDING VIGOR THAT THERE ISSUED THE MISSIONARY ENTERPRISE WHICH DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY SO AUGMENTED THE NUMERICAL STRENGTH AND THE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY."--KENNETH SCOTT LATOURETTE, A HISTORY OF THE EXPANSION OF CHRISTIANITY, VOL. IV, THE GREAT CENTURY A.D. 1800 - A.D. 1914 (NEW YORK: HARPER & BROTHERS, 1941), PP. 2-4.
PAGES 327, 329. PROPHETIC DATES.--ACCORDING TO JEWISH RECKONING THE FIFTH MONTH (AB) OF THE SEVENTH YEAR OF ARTAXERXES' REIGN WAS FROM JULY 23 TO AUGUST 21, 457 B.C. AFTER EZRA'S ARRIVAL IN JERUSALEM IN THE AUTUMN OF THE YEAR, THE DECREE OF THE KING WENT INTO EFFECT. FOR THE CERTAINTY OF THE DATE 457 B.C. BEING THE SEVENTH YEAR OF ARTAXERXES, SEE S. H. HORN AND L. H. WOOD, THE
CHRONOLOGY OF EZRA 7 (WASHINGTON, D. C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1953); E. G. KRAELING, THE BROOKLYN MUSEUM ARAMAIC PAPYRI (NEW HAVEN OR LONDON, 1953), PP. 191-193; THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST BIBLE COMMENTARY (WASHINGTON, D.C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1954), VOL. 3, PP. 97-110.
PAGE 335. FALL OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE.--THE IMPACT OF MOSLEM TURKEY UPON EUROPE AFTER THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1453 WAS AS SEVERE AS HAD BEEN THE CATASTROPHIC CONQUESTS OF THE MOSLEM SARACENS, DURING THE CENTURY AND A HALF AFTER THE DEATH OF MOHAMMED, UPON THE EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE. THROUGHOUT THE REFORMATION ERA, TURKEY WAS A CONTINUAL THREAT AT THE EASTERN GATES OF EUROPEAN CHRISTENDOM; THE WRITINGS OF THE REFORMERS ARE FULL OF CONDEMNATION OF THE OTTOMAN POWER. CHRISTIAN WRITERS SINCE HAVE BEEN CONCERNED WITH THE ROLE OF TURKEY IN FUTURE WORLD EVENTS, AND COMMENTATORS ON PROPHECY HAVE SEEN TURKISH POWER AND ITS DECLINE FORECAST IN SCRIPTURE.
FOR THE LATTER CHAPTER, UNDER THE "HOUR, DAY, MONTH, YEAR" PROPHECY, AS PART OF THE SIXTH TRUMPET, JOSIAH LITCH WORKED OUT AN APPLICATION OF THE TIME PROPHECY, TERMINATING TURKISH INDEPENDENCE IN AUGUST, 1840. LITCH'S VIEW CAN BE FOUND IN FULL IN HIS THE PROBABILITY OF THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST ABOUT A.D. 1843 (PUBLISHED IN JUNE, 1838); AN ADDRESS TO THE CLERGY (PUBLISHED IN THE SPRING OF 1840; A SECOND EDITION, WITH HISTORICAL DATA IN SUPPORT OF THE ACCURACY OF FORMER CALCULATIONS OF THE PROPHETIC PERIOD EXTENDING TO THE FALL OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, WAS PUBLISHED IN 1841); AND AN ARTICLE IN SIGNS OF THE TIMES AND EXPOSITOR OF PROPHECY, AUG. 1, 1840. SEE ALSO ARTICLE IN SIGNS OF THE TIMES AND EXPOSITOR OF PROPHECY, FEB. 1, 1841; AND J. N. LOUGHBOROUGH, THE GREAT ADVENT MOVEMENT (1905 ED.), PP. 129-132. THE BOOK BY URIAH SMITH, THOUGHTS ON DANIEL AND THE REVELATION, REV. ED. OF 1944, DISCUSSES THE PROPHETIC TIMING OF THIS PROPHECY ON PAGES 506-517.
FOR THE EARLIER HISTORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND THE DECLINE OF THE TURKISH POWER, SEE ALSO WILLIAM MILLER, THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE AND ITS SUCCESSORS, 1801-1927 (CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND: UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1936); GEORGE G. S. L. EVERSLEY, THE TURKISH EMPIRE FROM 1288 TO 1914 (LONDON : T. FISHER UNWIN, LTD., 2D ED., 1923); JOSEPH VON HAMMER-PURGSTALL, GESCHICHTE DES OSMANNISCHEN REICHES (PESTH: C. A. HARTLEBEN, 2D ED., 1834-36), 4 VOLS.; HERBERT A. GIBBONS, FOUNDATION OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, 1300-1403 (OXFORD: UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1916); ARNOLD J. TOYNBEE AND KENNETH B. KIRKWOOD, TURKEY (LONDON, 1926).
PAGE 340. WITHHOLDING THE BIBLE FROM THE PEOPLE.--THE READER WILL RECOGNIZE THAT THE TEXT OF THIS VOLUME WAS WRITTEN PRIOR TO VATICAN COUNCIL II, WITH ITS SOMEWHAT ALTERED POLICIES IN REGARD TO THE READING OF THE SCRIPTURES.
THROUGH THE CENTURIES, THE ATTITUDE OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH TOWARD CIRCULATION OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES IN VERNACULAR VERSIONS AMONG THE LAITY SHOWS UP AS NEGATIVE. SEE FOR EXAMPLE G. P. FISHER, THE REFORMATION, CH. 15,
PAR. 16 (1873 ED., PP. 530-532); J. CARDINAL GIBBONS, THE FAITH OF OUR FATHERS, CH. 8 (49TH ED., 1897), PP. 98-117; JOHN DOWLING, HISTORY OF ROMANISM, B. 7, CH. 2, SEC. 14; AND B. 9, CH. 3, SECS. 24-27 (1871 ED., PP. 491-496, 621-625); L. F. BUNGENER, HISTORY OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT, PP. 101-110 (2D EDINBURGH ED., 1853, TRANSLATED BY D. D. SCOTT); G. H. PUTNAM, BOOKS AND THEIR MAKERS DURING THE MIDDLE AGES, VOL. 1, PT. 2, CH. 2, PARS. 49, 54-56. SEE ALSO INDEX OF PROHIBITED BOOKS (VATICAN POLYGLOT PRESS, 1930), PP. IX, X; TIMOTHY HURLEY, A COMMENTARY ON THE PRESENT INDEX LEGISLATION (NEW YORK: BENZIGER BROTHERS, 1908), P. 71; TRANSLATION OF THE GREAT ENCYCLICAL LETTERS OF LEO XIII (NEW YORK: BENZIGER BROTHERS, 1903), P. 413.
BUT IN RECENT YEARS A DRAMATIC AND POSITIVE CHANGE HAS OCCURRED IN THIS RESPECT. ON THE ONE HAND, THE CHURCH HAS APPROVED SEVERAL VERSIONS PREPARED ON THE BASIS OF THE ORIGINAL LANGUAGES; ON THE OTHER, IT HAS PROMOTED THE STUDY OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES BY MEANS OF FREE DISTRIBUTION AND BIBLE INSTITUTES. THE CHURCH, HOWEVER, CONTINUES TO RESERVE FOR HERSELF THE EXCLUSIVE RIGHT TO INTERPRET THE BIBLE IN THE LIGHT OF HER OWN TRADITION, THUS JUSTIFYING THOSE DOCTRINES THAT DO NOT HARMONIZE WITH BIBLICAL TEACHINGS.
PAGE 373. ASCENSION ROBES.--THE STORY THAT THE ADVENTISTS MADE ROBES WITH WHICH TO ASCEND "TO MEET THE LORD IN THE AIR," WAS INVENTED BY THOSE WHO WISHED TO REPROACH THE ADVENT PREACHING. IT WAS CIRCULATED SO INDUSTRIOUSLY THAT MANY BELIEVED IT, BUT CAREFUL INQUIRY PROVED ITS FALSITY. FOR MANY YEARS A SUBSTANTIAL REWARD WAS OFFERED FOR PROOF THAT ONE SUCH INSTANCE EVER OCCURRED, BUT NO PROOF HAS BEEN PRODUCED. NONE WHO LOVED THE APPEARING OF THE SAVIOUR WERE SO IGNORANT OF THE TEACHINGS OF THE SCRIPTURES AS TO SUPPOSE THAT ROBES WHICH THEY COULD MAKE WOULD BE NECESSARY FOR THAT OCCASION. THE ONLY ROBE WHICH THE SAINTS WILL NEED TO MEET THE LORD IS THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF CHRIST. SEE ISAIAH 61:10; REVELATION 19:8.
FOR A THOROUGH REFUTATION OF THE LEGEND OF ASCENSION ROBES, SEE FRANCIS D. NICHOL, MIDNIGHT CRY (WASHINGTON, D.C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1944), CHS. 25-27, AND APPENDICES H-J. SEE ALSO LEROY EDWIN FROOM, PROPHETIC FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (WASHINGTON, D.C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1954), VOL. 4, PP. 822-826.
PAGE 374. THE CHRONOLOGY OF PROPHECY.--DR. GEORGE BUSH, PROFESSOR OF HEBREW AND ORIENTAL LITERATURE IN THE NEW YORK CITY UNIVERSITY, IN A LETTER ADDRESSED TO WILLIAM MILLER AND PUBLISHED IN THE ADVENT HERALD AND SIGNS OF THE TIMES REPORTER, BOSTON, MARCH 6 AND 13, 1844, MADE SOME IMPORTANT ADMISSIONS RELATIVE TO HIS CALCULATION OF THE PROPHETIC TIMES. DR. BUSH WROTE:
"NEITHER IS IT TO BE OBJECTED, AS I CONCEIVE, TO YOURSELF OR YOUR FRIENDS, THAT YOU HAVE DEVOTED MUCH TIME AND ATTENTION TO THE STUDY OF THE CHRONOLOGY OF PROPHECY, AND HAVE LABORED MUCH TO DETERMINE THE COMMENCING AND CLOSING DATES OF ITS GREAT PERIODS. IF THESE PERIODS ARE ACTUALLY GIVEN BY THE HOLY GHOST IN THE PROPHETIC BOOKS, IT WAS DOUBTLESS WITH THE DESIGN THAT THEY
SHOULD BE STUDIED, AND PROBABLY, IN THE END, FULLY UNDERSTOOD; AND NO MAN IS TO BE CHARGED WITH PRESUMPTUOUS FOLLY WHO REVERENTLY MAKES THE ATTEMPT TO DO THIS. . . . IN TAKING A DAY AS THE PROPHETICAL TERM FOR A YEAR, I BELIEVE YOU ARE SUSTAINED BY THE SOUNDEST EXEGESIS, AS WELL AS FORTIFIED BY THE HIGH NAMES OF MEDE, SIR ISAAC NEWTON, BISHOP NEWTON, KIRBY, SCOTT, KEITH, AND A HOST OF OTHERS WHO HAVE LONG SINCE COME TO SUBSTANTIALLY YOUR CONCLUSIONS ON THIS HEAD. THEY ALL AGREE THAT THE LEADING PERIODS MENTIONED BY DANIEL AND JOHN, DO ACTUALLY EXPIRE ABOUT THIS AGE OF THE WORLD, AND IT WOULD BE A STRANGE LOGIC THAT WOULD CONVICT YOU OF HERESY FOR HOLDING IN EFFECT THE SAME VIEWS WHICH STAND FORTH SO PROMINENT IN THE NOTICES OF THESE EMINENT DIVINES." "YOUR RESULTS IN THIS FIELD OF INQUIRY DO NOT STRIKE ME SO FAR OUT OF THE WAY AS TO AFFECT ANY OF THE GREAT INTERESTS OF TRUTH OR DUTY." "YOUR ERROR, AS I APPREHEND, LIES IN ANOTHER DIRECTION THAN YOUR CHRONOLOGY." "YOU HAVE ENTIRELY MISTAKEN THE NATURE OF THE EVENTS WHICH ARE TO OCCUR WHEN THOSE PERIODS HAVE EXPIRED. THIS IS THE HEAD AND FRONT OF YOUR EXPOSITORY OFFENDING." SEE ALSO LEROY EDWIN FROOM, PROPHETIC FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (WASHINGTON, D.C.: REVIEW AND HERALD PUBLISHING ASSN., 1950), VOL. 1, CHS. 1, 2.
PAGE 435. A THREEFOLD MESSAGE.--REVELATION 14:6, 7 FORETELLS THE PROCLAMATION OF THE FIRST ANGEL'S MESSAGE. THEN THE PROPHET CONTINUES: "THERE FOLLOWED ANOTHER ANGEL, SAYING, BABYLON IS FALLEN, IS FALLEN. . . . AND THE THIRD ANGEL FOLLOWED THEM." THE WORD HERE RENDERED "FOLLOWED" MEANS "TO GO ALONG WITH," "TO FOLLOW ONE," "GO WITH HIM." SEE HENRY GEORGE LIDDELL AND ROBERT SCOTT, GREEK ENGLISH LEXICON (OXFORD: CLARENDON PRESS, 1940), VOL. 1, P. 52. IT ALSO MEANS "TO ACCOMPANY." SEE GEORGE ABBOTT-SMITH, A MANUAL GREEK LEXICON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT (EDINBURGH: T. AND T. CLARK, 1950), PAGE 17. IT IS THE SAME WORD THAT IS USED IN MARK 5:24, "JESUS WENT WITH HIM; AND MUCH PEOPLE FOLLOWED HIM, AND THRONGED HIM." IT IS ALSO USED OF THE REDEEMED ONE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FOUR THOUSAND, REVELATION 14:4, WHERE IT IS SAID, "THESE ARE THEY WHICH FOLLOW THE LAMB WHITHERSOEVER HE GOETH." IN BOTH THESE PLACES IT IS EVIDENT THAT THE IDEA INTENDED TO BE CONVEYED IS THAT OF "GOING TOGETHER," "IN COMPANY WITH." SO IN 1 CORINTHIANS 10:4, WHERE WE READ OF THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL THAT "THEY DRANK OF THAT SPIRITUAL ROCK THAT FOLLOWED THEM," THE WORD "FOLLOWED" IS TRANSLATED FROM THE SAME GREEK WORD, AND THE MARGIN HAS IT, "WENT WITH THEM." FROM THIS WE LEARN THAT THE IDEA IN REVELATION 14:8, 9 IS NOT SIMPLY THAT THE SECOND AND THIRD ANGELS FOLLOWED THE FIRST IN POINT OF TIME, BUT THAT THEY WENT WITH HIM. THE THREE MESSAGES ARE BUT ONE THREEFOLD MESSAGE. THEY ARE THREE ONLY IN THE ORDER OF THEIR RISE. BUT HAVING RISEN, THEY GO ON TOGETHER AND ARE INSEPARABLE.
PAGE 447. SUPREMACY OF THE BISHOPS OF ROME.--FOR THE LEADING CIRCUMSTANCES IN THE ASSUMPTION OF SUPREMACY BY THE BISHOPS OF ROME, SEE ROBERT FRANCIS CARDINAL BELLARMINE, POWER OF THE POPES IN TEMPORAL AFFAIRS (THERE IS AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION IN THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON, D. C.); HENRY EDWARD CARDINAL MANNING, THE TEMPORAL POWER OF THE VICAR OF JESUS CHRIST (LONDON: BURNS AND LAMBERT, 2D ED., 1862); AND JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS, FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (BALTIMORE: JOHN MURPHY CO., 110TH ED., 1917), CHS. 5, 9, 10, 12. FOR PROTESTANT AUTHORS SEE TREVOR GERVASE JALLAND, THE CHURCH AND THE PAPACY (LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 1944, A BAMP
(LONDON: BURNS AND LAMBERT, 2D ED., 1862); AND JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS, FAITH OF OUR FATHERS (BALTIMORE: JOHN MURPHY CO., 110TH ED., 1917), CHS. 5, 9, 10, 12. FOR PROTESTANT AUTHORS SEE TREVOR GERVASE JALLAND, THE CHURCH AND THE PAPACY (LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 1944, A BAMPTON LECTURE); AND RICHARD FREDERICK LITTLEDALE, PETRINE CLAIMS (LONDON: SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 1899). FOR SOURCES OF THE EARLY CENTURIES OF THE PETRINE THEORY, SEE JAMES T. SHOTWELL AND LOUISE ROPES LOOMIS, THE SEE OF PETER (NEW YORK: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1927). FOR THE FALSE "DONATION OF CONSTANTINE" SEE CHRISTOPHER B. COLEMAN, THE TREATISE OF LORENZO VALLA ON THE DONATION OF CONSTANTINE (NEW YORK, 1914), WHICH GIVES THE FULL LATIN TEXT AND TRANSLATION, AND A COMPLETE CRITICISM OF THE DOCUMENT AND ITS THESIS.
PAGE 565. QUOTATIONS FROM JOSIAH STRONG.--IN HIS FIRST EDITION OF OUR COUNTRY, JOSIAH STRONG, WITHOUT ACCESS TO PRIMARY SOURCES, INCORRECTLY REFERENCED THE STATEMENTS ATTRIBUTED TO POPE PIUS IX.
THE CORRECT REFERENCE FOR THE FIRST CITATION IS POPE GREGORY XVI'S ENCYCLICAL LETTER OF AUGUST 15, 1832. THE RELEVANT PARAGRAPH IS HERE QUOTED IN FULL:
LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE
"THIS SHAMEFUL FONT OF INDIFFERENTISM GIVES RISE TO THAT ABSURD AND ERRONEOUS PROPOSITION WHICH CLAIMS THAT LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE MUST BE MAINTAINED FOR EVERYONE. IT SPREADS RUIN IN SACRED AND CIVIL AFFAIRS, THOUGH SOME REPEAT OVER AND OVER AGAIN WITH THE GREATEST IMPUDENCE THAT SOME ADVANTAGE ACCRUES TO RELIGION FROM IT. BUT THE DEATH OF THE SOUL IS WORSE THAN FREEDOM OF ERROR,' AS AUGUSTINE WAS WONT TO SAY. WHEN ALL RESTRAINTS ARE REMOVED BY WHICH MEN ARE KEPT ON THE NARROW PATH OF TRUTH, THEIR NATURE, WHICH IS ALREADY INCLINED TO EVIL, PROPELS THEM TO RUIN. THEN TRULY THE BOTTOMLESS PIT' IS OPENED FROM WHICH JOHN SAW SMOKE ASCENDING WHICH OBSCURED THE SUN, AND OUT OF WHICH LOCUSTS FLEW FORTH TO DEVASTATE THE EARTH. THENCE COMES TRANSFORMATION OF MINDS, CORRUPTION OF YOUTHS, CONTEMPT OF SACRED THINGS AND HOLY LAWS--IN OTHER WORDS, A PESTILENCE MORE DEADLY TO THE STATE THAN ANY OTHER. EXPERIENCE SHOWS, EVEN FROM EARLIEST TIMES, THAT CITIES RENOWNED FOR WEALTH, DOMINION, AND GLORY PERISHED AS A RESULT OF THIS SINGLE EVIL, NAMELY IMMODERATE FREEDOM OF OPINION, LICENSE OF FREE SPEECH, AND DESIRE FOR NOVELTY."--AS PRINTED IN CLAUDIA CARLEN, IHM, THE PAPAL ENCYCLICALS, 1740-1878 (ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN: THE PIERIAN PRESS, 1990), VOL. 1, P. 238.
THE SECOND CITATION SHOULD BE CREDITED TO POPE PIUS IX'S SYLLABUS OF ERRORS, WHICH ACCOMPANIED HIS ENCYCLICAL LETTER OF DECEMBER 8, 1864. INCLUDED AMONG THE 80 ERRORS ANATHEMATIZED ARE:
"24. THE CHURCH HAS NOT THE POWER OF USING FORCE, NOR HAS SHE ANY TEMPORAL POWER, DIRECT OR INDIRECT.--APOSTOLIC LETTER AD APOSTOLICAE,' AUG. 22, 1851."
"78. HENCE IT HAS BEEN WISELY DECIDED BY LAW, IN SOME CATHOLIC COUNTRIES, THAT PERSONS COMING TO RESIDE THEREIN SHALL ENJOY THE PUBLIC EXERCISE OF THEIR OWN PECULIAR WORSHIP.--ALLOCUTION ACERBISSIMUM,' SEPT. 27, 1852.
"79. MOREOVER, IT IS FALSE THAT THE CIVIL LIBERTY OF EVERY FORM OF WORSHIP, AND THE FULL POWER, GIVEN TO ALL, OF OVERTLY AND PUBLICLY MANIFESTING ANY OPINIONS WHATSOEVER AND THOUGHTS, CONDUCE MORE EASILY TO CORRUPT THE MORALS AND MINDS OF THE PEOPLE, AND TO PROPAGATE THE PEST OF INDIFFERENTISM.--ALLOCUTION NUNQUAM FORE,' DEC. 15, 1856."--AS PRINTED IN ANNE FREMANTLE, ED., THE PAPAL ENCYCLICALS IN THEIR HISTORICAL CONTEXT (NEW YORK: G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, 1956), PP. 146, 152.
IT SHOULD ALSO BE NOTED THAT THE OATH OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE POPE, QUOTED IN THE LAST PARAGRAPH OF THE CITATION FROM STRONG, WAS THE BISHOP'S OATH, NOT ONE TAKEN BY CARDINALS.
PAGE 565. WITHHOLDING THE BIBLE FROM THE PEOPLE.--SEE NOTE FOR PAGE 340.
PAGE 578. THE ETHIOPIAN CHURCH AND THE SABBATH.--UNTIL RATHER RECENT YEARS THE COPTIC CHURCH OF ETHIOPIA OBSERVED THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH. THE ETHIOPIANS ALSO KEPT SUNDAY, THE FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK, THROUGHOUT THEIR HISTORY AS A CHRISTIAN PEOPLE. THESE DAYS WERE MARKED BY SPECIAL SERVICES IN THE CHURCHES. THE OBSERVANCE OF THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH HAS, HOWEVER, VIRTUALLY CEASED IN MODERN ETHIOPIA. FOR EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF RELIGIOUS DAYS IN ETHIOPIA, SEE PERO GOMES DE TEIXEIRA, THE DISCOVERY OF ABYSSINIA BY THE PORTUGUESE IN 1520 (TRANSLATED IN ENGLISH IN LONDON: BRITISH MUSEUM, 1938), P. 79; FATHER FRANCISCO ALVEREZ, NARRATIVE OF THE PORTUGUESE EMBASSY TO ABYSSINIA DURING THE YEARS 1520-1527, IN THE RECORDS OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY (LONDON, 1881), VOL. 64, PP. 22-49; MICHAEL RUSSELL, NUBIA AND ABYSSINIA (QUOTING FATHER LOBO, CATHOLIC MISSIONARY IN ETHIOPIA IN 1622) (NEW YORK: HARPER & BROTHERS, 1837), PP. 226-229; S. GIACOMO BARATTI, LATE TRAVELS INTO THE REMOTE COUNTRIES OF ABYSSINIA (LONDON: BENJAMIN BILLINGSLEY, 1670), PP. 134-137; JOB LUDOLPHUS, A NEW HISTORY FOR ETHIOPIA (LONDON: S. SMITH, 1682), PP. 234-357; SAMUEL GOBAT, JOURNAL OF THREE YEARS' RESIDENCE IN ABYSSINIA (NEW YORK: ED. OF 1850), PP. 55-58, 83-98. FOR OTHER WORKS TOUCHING UPON THE QUESTION, SEE PETER HEYLYN, HISTORY OF THE SABBATH, 2D ED., 1636, VOL. 2, PP. 198-200; ARTHUR P. STANLEY, LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF THE EASTERN CHURCH (NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, 1882), LECTURE 1, PAR. 1; C. F. REY, ROMANCE OF THE PORTUGUESE IN ABYSSINIA (LONDON: F. H. AND G. WITHERLEY, 1929), PP. 59, 253-297.